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You can use an extension to add protocol conformance to a type that is declared elsewhere, or even to a type that you imported from a library or framework.
Write an extension for the Double type that adds an absoluteValue property. You can use a protocol name just like any other named type—for example, to create a collection of objects that have different types but that all conform to a single protocol.
When you work with values whose type is a protocol type, methods outside the protocol definition are not available. Even though the variable protocolValue has a runtime type of SimpleClass , the compiler treats it as the given type of ExampleProtocol.
You represent errors using any type that adopts the Error protocol. Use throw to throw an error and throws to mark a function that can throw an error.
If you throw an error in a function, the function returns immediately and the code that called the function handles the error.
There are several ways to handle errors. One way is to use do - catch. Inside the do block, you mark code that can throw an error by writing try in front of it.
Inside the catch block, the error is automatically given the name error unless you give it a different name. Change the printer name to "Never Has Toner" , so that the send job:toPrinter: function throws an error.
You can provide multiple catch blocks that handle specific errors. You write a pattern after catch just as you do after case in a switch. Add code to throw an error inside the do block.
What kind of error do you need to throw so that the error is handled by the first catch block? What about the second and third blocks?
Another way to handle errors is to use try? If the function throws an error, the specific error is discarded and the result is nil. Otherwise, the result is an optional containing the value that the function returned.
Use defer to write a block of code that is executed after all other code in the function, just before the function returns.
The code is executed regardless of whether the function throws an error. You can use defer to write setup and cleanup code next to each other, even though they need to be executed at different times.
You can make generic forms of functions and methods, as well as classes, enumerations, and structures.
Use where right before the body to specify a list of requirements—for example, to require the type to implement a protocol, to require two types to be the same, or to require a class to have a particular superclass.
On This Page. In Swift, this can be done in a single line: print "Hello, world! Note For the best experience, open this chapter as a playground in Xcode.
Experiment Create a constant with an explicit type of Float and a value of 4. Experiment Try removing the conversion to String from the last line.
Experiment Change optionalName to nil. Experiment Try removing the default case. Experiment Add another variable to keep track of which kind of number was the largest, as well as what that largest number was.
Experiment Remove the day parameter. Experiment Rewrite the closure to return zero for all odd numbers. Experiment Add a constant property with let , and add another method that takes an argument.
Experiment Make another subclass of NamedShape called Circle that takes a radius and a name as arguments to its initializer.
Experiment Write a function that compares two Rank values by comparing their raw values. Experiment Add a third case to ServerResponse and to the switch.
Nutzungsinformationen Die Inhalte von zahlungsverkehrsfragen. Eine auszugsweise Verwendung auf anderen Seiten ist mit Quellenangabe gestattet.
Ein Konto? While the syntax can act as an if statement, its primary benefit is inferring non-nullability.
Where an if statement requires a case, guard assumes the case based on the condition provided. Also, since guard contains no scope, with exception of the else closure, leaseStart is presented as an unwrapped optional to the guard's super-scope.
Lastly, if the guard statement's test fails, Swift requires the else to exit the current method or loop, ensuring leaseStart never is accessed when nil.
This is performed with the keywords return , continue , break , or throw , or by calling a function returning a Never e.
Objective-C was weakly typed and allowed any method to be called on any object at any time. If the method call failed, there was a default handler in the runtime that returned nil.
That meant that no unwrapping or testing was needed, the equivalent statement in Objective-C:. Would return nil, and this could be tested.
However, this also demanded that all method calls be dynamic, which introduces significant overhead. Swift's use of optionals provides a similar mechanism for testing and dealing with nils, but does so in a way that allows the compiler to use static dispatch because the unwrapping action is called on a defined instance the wrapper , versus occurring in the runtime dispatch system.
In many object-oriented languages, objects are represented internally in two parts. The object is stored as a block of data placed on the heap , while the name or "handle" to that object is represented by a pointer.
Objects are passed between methods by copying the value of the pointer, allowing the same underlying data on the heap to be accessed by anyone with a copy.
In contrast, basic types like integers and floating-point values are represented directly; the handle contains the data, not a pointer to it, and that data is passed directly to methods by copying.
These styles of access are termed pass-by-reference in the case of objects, and pass-by-value for basic types. Both concepts have their advantages and disadvantages.
Objects are useful when the data is large, like the description of a window or the contents of a document. In these cases, access to that data is provided by copying a or bit value, versus copying an entire data structure.
However, smaller values like integers are the same size as pointers typically both are one word , so there is no advantage to passing a pointer, versus passing the value.
Also, pass-by-reference inherently requires a dereferencing operation, which can produce noticeable overhead in some operations, typically those used with these basic value types, like mathematics.
Similarly to C and in contrast to most other OO languages, [ citation needed ] Swift offers built-in support for objects using either pass-by-reference or pass-by-value semantics, the former using the class declaration and the latter using struct.
Structs in Swift have almost all the same features as classes: methods, implementing protocols and using the extension mechanisms.
For this reason, Apple terms all data generically as instances , versus objects or values. Structs do not support inheritance, however.
The programmer is free to choose which semantics are more appropriate for each data structure in the application. Larger structures like windows would be defined as classes, allowing them to be passed around as pointers.
Smaller structures, like a 2D point, can be defined as structs, which will be pass-by-value and allow direct access to their internal data with no dereference.
The performance improvement inherent to the pass-by-value concept is such that Swift uses these types for almost all common data types, including Int and Double , and types normally represented by objects, like String and Array.
To ensure that even the largest structs do not cause a performance penalty when they are handed off, Swift uses copy on write so that the objects are copied only if and when the program attempts to change a value in them.
This means that the various accessors have what is in effect a pointer to the same data storage. So while the data is physically stored as one instance in memory, at the level of the application, these values are separate and physical separation is enforced by copy on write only if needed.
A key feature of Objective-C is its support for categories , methods that can be added to extend classes at runtime. Categories allow extending classes in-place to add new functions with no need to subclass or even have access to the original source code.
An example might be to add spell checker support to the base NSString class, which means all instances of NSString in the application gain spell checking.
The system is also widely used as an organizational technique, allowing related code to be gathered into library-like extensions.
Swift continues to support this concept, although they are now termed extensions , and declared with the keyword extension. Unlike Objective-C, Swift can also add new properties accessors, types, and enums to extant instances [ citation needed ].
Another key feature of Objective-C is its use of protocols , known in most modern languages as interfaces. Protocols promise that a particular class implements a set of methods, meaning that other objects in the system can call those methods on any object supporting that protocol.
This is often used in modern OO languages as a substitute for multiple inheritance , although the feature sets are not entirely similar.
A common example of a protocol in Cocoa is the NSCopying protocol, which defines one method, copyWithZone , that implements deep copying on objects.
In Objective-C, and most other languages implementing the protocol concept, it is up to the programmer to ensure that the required methods are implemented in each class.
Combined, these allow protocols to be written once and support a wide variety of instances. Also, the extension mechanism can be used to add protocol conformance to an object that does not list that protocol in its definition.
For example, a protocol might be declared called StringConvertible , which ensures that instances that conform to the protocol implement a toString method that returns a String.
In Swift, this can be declared with code like this:. In Swift, like many modern languages supporting interfaces, protocols can be used as types, which means variables and methods can be defined by protocol instead of their specific type:.
It does not matter what sort of instance someSortOfPrintableObject is, the compiler will ensure that it conforms to the protocol and thus this code is safe.
As Swift treats structs and classes as similar concepts, both extensions and protocols are extensively used in Swift's runtime to provide a rich API based on structs.
A concrete example of how all of these features interact can be seen in the concept of default protocol implementations :. This function defines a method that works on any instance conforming to Equatable , providing a not equals function.
Any instance, class or struct, automatically gains this implementation simply by conforming to Equatable.
As many instances gain Equatable through their base implementations or other generic extensions, most basic objects in the runtime gain equals and not equals with no code.
This combination of protocols, defaults, protocol inheritance, and extensions allows many of the functions normally associated with classes and inheritance to be implemented on value types.
This concept is so widely used within Swift, that Apple has begun calling it a protocol-oriented programming language. They suggest addressing many of the problem domains normally solved though classes and inheritance using protocols and structs instead.